TEXT B. FLUORINE
Exercise 8. Опишите физические свойства натрия, используя следующие глаголы, существительные и прилагательные:
Exercise 9. Задайте друг другу по 5 вопросов о натрии. Например,
Is sodium a … ?
Does it react with … ?
Exercise 10. Обобщите химические свойства натрия, закончив следующие предложения:
1.Sodium combines vigorously with …
3.It acts energetically with …
4.It tarnishes at once when …
Fluorine doesn’t occur in nature.The compounds of fluorine are widely distributed in
such minerals as cryolite, fluorspar, etc., and small quantities occur in some micas. It is found in all rocks, thermal waters and vapours coming from beneath the earth’s crust.
For many years the isolation of fluorine was one of the main problems in chemistry. Nobody doubted the existance of fluorine but it withstood every attempted method of isolation.
Having electrolized the solution of potassium fluoride in anhydrous hydrogen fluoride, Moissan finally solved this problem in 1886.
Fluorine is a light canary-yellow gas condensed to a clear yellow liquid boiling at –1870. It freezes to a pale yellow solid melting at –2230. When cooled at – 2520, the solid becomes colorless. Fluorine is the most active
element known. It combines with
hydrogen when exploding. While
decomposing water, it forms hydrogen fluorine and liberates oxygen. All metals are acted upon by the gas.
Silicon, phosphorus and glass are not influenced by liquid fluorine. It never reacts with nitrogen, oxygen and chlorine even at high temperatures. Glass is not attacted by fluorine. Fluorine is a very powerful agent. It decomposes water, evolving oxygen charged with ozone. Being combined with halogens, fluorine forms a variety of interhalogen compounds.
EXERCISES AND ASSIGNMENTS
Exercise 1. Прочитайте текст и найдите в нем ответы на следующие вопросы:
1.In what minerals are the compounds of fluorine widely distributed?
2.Why was the isolation of fluorine one of the main problems for many years?
3.What method did Moissan use for obtaining fluorine ?
4.What solution did he electrolyze?
5.What kind of gas is fluorine?
6.Why is chlorine the most active element known?
Exercise 2. Выделите основную информацию каждого абзаца. Озаглавьте их.
Exercise 3. Выпишете ключевые слова.
Exercise 4. Передайте основные положения текста в логической последовательности.
Exercise 5. Найдите в тексте предложения с причастиями. Проанализируйте и переведите их.
1.The elements chlorine, bromine, and iodine form one of the best defined families of elements – halogens. The name was given by G.J. Berzelius. What do you know about this scientist and his discoveries?
2.In 1886 A. Moissan obtained fluorine by means of electrolysis of the solution of potassium fluorine in anhydrous hydrogen fluoride. What do you know about this discovery?
TEXT C. A. MOISSAN (1852-1907)
A.Moissan is one of the famous French chemists, a professor of the University of Paris.
He was a skilful experimentator. He managed to evolve fluorine after the attempts of other chemists had failed. He simplified an electric arc furnace that made it possible to study many reactions which usually take place only at high temperature.
Moissan found that if potassium fluoride was
dissolved in the liquid hydrogen fluoride at –230 C,
hydrogen was evolved at the cathode and fluorine
at the anode. The primary products of electrolysis
are fluorine at the anode and potassium at the
cathode. The potassium reacts with hydrogen
fluoride reforming potassium fluoride and liberating hydrogen.
A.Moissan investigated carbides of many metals. His results were summarized in the monographs «Fluorine and its Compounds» (1900) and «Electric Arc Furnace» (1897).
He published the «Course of Mineral Chemistry». In 1906 Moissan was awarded the Nobel prize for his method of evolving fluorine and for using electric furnace in science. Later on electric furnace was named after him.
EXERCISES AND ASSIGNMENTS
Exercise 1. Прочитайте текст за минимальный отрезок времени и перечислите открытия, сделанные А. Муассаном.
Exercise 2. Используйте полученную информацию и закончите следующие предложения:
A. Moissan managed to evolve … He simplified …
He investigated … He published..
He was awarded …
Exercise 3. Каких лауретов Нобелевской премии вы знаете ?
Exercise 4. Прочитайте текст и передайте по-русски его содержание.
Составьте краткие диалоги на английском о лауреатах Нобелевской премии в области физики (химии, литературы).
The 2000 Nobel Prize for physics went to Jaures Alfyorov, a Russian scientist, vice president of the Russian Academy of Sciences and director of the St.Petersburg–based Ioffe Institute of
Physics and Engineering. He shared the prize
with two Americans: Herbert Kromer and Jack Kilby. The Swedish Royal Academy of Sciences awarded the physicists for their work
in modern information technology, which, in particular, led to the microchip, laser diodes,
and super-fast semiconductors, mobile phones and satellite links. Due to their researchers small electronic apparatuses, anything from electronic watchers and TV games to mini-calculators and personal computers, appeared in our every day life.
Jaures Alfyorov is the eighth Soviet/Russian Nobel laureate in physics. In 1958, Pavel Cherenkov, Igor Tamm, and Ilya Frank were awarded the Nobel Prize for discovery and interpretation of the Cherenkov effect. In 1962, the prize went to Lev Landau for developing fundamental theories of condensed matter, in particular liquid helium. In 1964, Nikolai Basov and Alexander Prokhorov shared the prize with Charles Townes for fundamental work in the sphere of quantum electronics, leading to maser-laser-based generators and amplifiers. And finally, in 1978, the Nobel prize was awarded to Pyotr Kapitsa, Arno Penzias, and Robert Wilson for fundamental inventions and discoveries in low temperature physics.
* * *
Exercise 1. Изучите предложения, переведите их и составьте собственные. Пользуйтесь сочетаниями to wash the glassware, to cool the substance, to evaporate the liquid, to control the temperature, etc.
1.The mixture heating in a vessel will soon boil.
2.When heating this mixture we were very careful.
3.Heating this mixture they used a gas burner.
4.When heated, the mixture changes its colour.
5.Having heated the mixture, they were to measure its temperature again.
6.Having compared these two substances …
7.When comparing these substances …
8.Comparing these substances …
9.Having compared this element …
10.Examining this liquid …
Exercise 2. Сравните два предложения, переведите:
A.Being heated, the gas increased in volume.
B.The gas being heated considerably increased in volume.
Exercise 3. Переведите на русский. Обратите внимание на перевод слов
1.Any material studied should be first purified.
2.When dissolved in cold water, the acid reacted slowly.
3.The substance influenced by heat decomposed.
4.The increased concentration of the ions of water increased the affects caused by these ions.
5.The compound heated melted slowly.
Exercise 4. Переведите по образцу.
The experiment followed by a lecture lasted 2 hours.
Эксперимент, за которым последовала лекция, длился два часа.
1.The state of water affected by cooling and heating is greatly changed.
2.The questions answered at the lecture were summarized and discussed.
3.The substance acted on by magnetic field must be a metal.
4.The data referred to in the report were of great importance.
5.The changes in a state or a form of a substance spoken of as physical changes are called physical properties of this substance.
6.The analysis followed by an examination gave unexpected results.
7.Radioactivity is the property unifluenced by any known catalyst.
8.Owing to their experiments chlorine was referred to as diatomic.
Exercise 5. Переведите и поставьте слова в скобках в соответствующую форму причастия.
1.The work (выполненная) in time was very important.
2.(При охлаждении) to the original temperature the substance becomes solid.
3.The new experiment (о котором говорили) so much will be carried out again very soon.
4.The piece of ice (помещенный) in the water began to melt.
5.(При нагревании ) ice melts.
6.The text (переведенный) by him was very useful for our work.
7.The new device (показанный) by our professor was very interesting.
8.(При охлажении) the steam turns back to water.
9.(Открыв) these and many other similar substances, the researchers could answer the question.
10.Most atoms contain (незаряженные) particles (называемые) atoms.
Exercise 6. Переведите части предложений.
1.When heated sufficiently, …
2.If cooled to 200C, …
3.Translated into Russian, …
4.Unless heated, …
5.The question involved… ,
6.When removed… ,
7.Produced at the plant … ,
8.If examined under a microscope…,
9.When produced at the plant…,
10.If moulded between the fingers…,
11.When changed greatly… ,
12.Having cooled the substance … .
Exercise 7. Переведите.
1.The density, the concentration of dissolved gases and the temperature studies established the optimum conditions for this process.
2.We passed the gases through the mixer spoken of and then measured the pressure obtained.
3.Being treated with certain chemicals wood can be used instead of metal.
4.Having investigated the influence of temperature we came to a conclusion mentioned in the article.
5.When separating a pure substance from a mixture you should provide for possible mistakes concerning the purity of the substance.
6.Having been separated from a mixture, a pure substance was investigated under microscope.
7.The experiments carried out at our laboratory resulted in many new investigations in the field of ceramics.
8.A change accompanied by the evolution of heat is described as exothermic, while a change in which heat is absorbed is called endothermic.
9.Having examined the new work carried out by our research workers we could say that various lines of technological progress, ranging from the invention of new devices to the development of some industrial chemical
Text b: «hardware»
1) What does the term «computer» describe?
2) Is computer intelligent?
3) What are five components of computer system?
4) What is connectivity?
5) What is software? What’s the difference between hardware and software?
6) Why people are the most important component of a computer system?
7) In what way terms «data» and «information» differ?
8) How does computer convert data into information?
Exercise 8.1. Which of the listed below terms have Russian equivalents:
computer, diskette, metal, processor, scanner, information, data, microphones, printer, modem, Internet.
Exercise 8.2. Which of the listed above statements are true/false. Specify your answer using the text.
1) Computer is made of electronic components so it is referred to as electronic device.
2) Computer has no intelligence until software is loaded.
3) There are five elements of computer system: hardware, software, people, diskettes and data.
4) The manner in which computers are connected is the connectivity.
5) Without software instructions hardware doesn’t know what to do.
6) The software is the most important component because it is made by people.
7) The user inputs data into computer to get information as an output.
8) Computer is used to help people in decision making process.
Exercise 8.3. Match the following:
1) … doesn’t come to life until it is connected to other parts of a system.
2) … is the term used to describe the instructions that tell the hardware how to perform a task.
3) … create the computer software instructions and respond to the procedures that those instructions present
4) Information in the form of instruction is called a…
5) The manner in which the various individual systems are connected is…
6) … is organized, processed and useful for decision making
7) The basic job of the computer is the…
c) processing of information
Exercise 8.4. Translate the text. Retell the text, using the vocabulary.
Exercise 8.5. Questions for group discussion:
1) Why so many people are still «computer illiterate»?
2) What are the most important applications of computer? (Are computer games just a «waste of time» or it is a nice hobby and a lot of fun?)
3) Who has a computer in your group? Ask them what they use it for?
What is hardware? Webster’s dictionary gives us the following definition of the hardware — the mechanical, magnetic, electronic, and electrical devices composing a computer system.
Computer hardware can be divided into four categories:
1) input hardware
2) processing hardware
3) storage hardware
4) output hardware.
The purpose of the input hardware is to collect data and convert it into a form suitable for computer processing. The most common input device is a keyboard. It looks very much like a typewriter. The mouse is a hand held device connected to the computer by small cable. As the mouse is rolled across the mouse pad, the cursor moves across the screen. When the cursor reaches the desired location, the user usually pushes a button on the mouse once or twice to signal a menu selection or a command to the computer.
The light pen uses a light sensitive photoelectric cell to signal screen position to the computer. Another type of input hardware is optic-electronic scanner that is used to input graphics as well as typeset characters. Microphone and video camera can be also used to input data into the computer. Electronic cameras are becoming very popular among the consumers for their relatively low price and convenience.
The purpose of processing hardware is retrieve, interpret and direct the execution of software instructions provided to the computer. The most common components of processing hardware are the Central Processing Unit and main memory.
The Central Processing Unit (CPU) is the brain of the computer. It reads and interprets software instructions and coordinates the processing activities that must take place. The design of the CPU affects the processing power and the speed of the computer, as well as the amount of main memory it can use effectively. With a well-designed CPU in your computer, you can perform highly sophisticated tasks in a very short time.
Memory is the system of component of the computer in which information is stored. There are two types of computer memory: RAM and ROM.
RAM (random access memory) is the volatile computer memory, used for creating loading, and running programs and for manipulating and temporarily storing data;
ROM (read only memory) is nonvolatile, non-modifiable computer memory, used to hold programmed instructions to the system.
The more memory you have in your computer, the more operations you can perform.
The purpose of storage hardware is to store computer instructions and data in a form that is relatively permanent and retrieve when needed for processing. Storage hardware serves the same basic functions as do office filing systems except that it stores data as electromagnetic signals. The most common ways of storing data are Hard disk, floppy disk and CD-ROM.
Hard disk is a rigid disk coated with magnetic material, for storing programs and relatively large amounts of data.
Floppy disk (diskette) — thin, usually flexible plastic disk coated with magnetic material, for storing computer data and programs. There are two formats for floppy disks: 5.25″ and 3.5″. 5.25″ is not used in modern computer systems because of it relatively large size flexibility and small capacity. 3.5″ disks are formatted 1.4 megabytes and are widely used.
CD-ROM (compact disc read only memory) is a compact disc on which a large amount of digitized read-only data can be stored. CD-ROMs are very popular now because of the growing speed which CD-ROM drives can provide nowadays. Output hardware
The purpose of output hardware is to provide the user with the means to view information produced by the computer system. Information is output in either hardcopy or softcopy form. Hardcopy output can be held in your hand, such as paper with text (word or numbers) or graphics printed on it. Softcopy output is displayed on a monitor.
Monitor is a component with a display screen for viewing computer data, television programs, etc.
Printer is a computer output device that produces a paper copy of data or graphics.
Modem is an example of communication hardware — an electronic device that makes possible the transmission of data to or from computer via telephone or other communication lines.
Hardware comes in many configurations, depending on what the computer system is designed to do. Hardware can fill several floors of a large office building or can fit on your lap.
amount — количество
capacity — вместительность
circuitry — эл. цепи
CPU, microprocessor — микропроцессор
hard disk — жесткий диск, «винчестер»
input hardware — устройства ввода данных
keyboard — клавиатура
lap — колени
modem — модем
mouse — устройство для перемещения объектов на экране, «мышь»
output hardware — выходные устройства отображения информации
printer — принтер
processing hardware — устройства обработки данных
RAM — ОЗУ (оперативное запоминающее устройство)
ROM — ПЗУ (постоянное запоминающее устройство)
CD—ROM — накопитель на компакт-дисках (CD)
scanner — сканер
sensitive — чувствительный
sophisticated — сложный
storage hardware — устройства хранения данных
temporarily — временно
temporary — временный
the purpose — цель
tier — ярус
to affect — влиять
to connect — соединять
to convert — преобразовывать
to direct — управлять
to execute — выполнять
to interpret — переводить
to provide — обеспечивать
to reach — достигать
to retrieve — извлекать
to roll — катать, перекатывать
volatile — летучий, нестойкий, временный
1. What is the Webster’s dictionary definition of the hardware?
2. What groups of hardware could be defined?
3. What is input hardware? What are the examples of input hardware?
4. What is mouse designed for? What is a light pen?
5. What is processing hardware? What are the basic types of memory used in a PC?
6. Can a PC-user change the ROM? Who records the information in ROM?
7. What is storage hardware? What is CD-ROM used for? Can a user record his or her data on a CD? What kind of storage hardware can contain more information: CD-ROM, RAM or ROM?
8. What is modem used for? Can PC-user communicate with other people without a modem?
Exercise 8.6. Which of the listed below statements are true/false. Specify your answer using the text.
1) Computer is an electronic device therefore hardware is a system of electronic devices.
2) The purpose of the input hardware is to collect data and convert it into a form suitable for computer processing.
3) Scanner is used to input graphics only.
4) The purpose of processing hardware is to retrieve, interpret and direct the execution of software instructions provided to the computer.
5) CPU reads and interprets software and prints the results on paper.
6) User is unable to change the contents of ROM.
7) 5.25″ floppy disks are used more often because they are flexible and have more capacity than 3.5″ disks.
5) Printer is a processing hardware because its purpose is to show the information produced by the system.
6) Modem is an electronic device that makes possible the transmission of data from one computer to another via telephone or other communication lines.
7) The purpose of storage hardware is to store computer instructions and data in a form that is relatively permanent and retrieve them when needed for processing.
Exercise8.7. Give definitions to the following using the vocabulary
TEXT B. WATER
Water is one of the commonest of all substances and without it life would be impossible. The seas and oceans cover about seven tenths of the Earth’s surface but water is also contained in the soil, in the atmosphere and in all living things. More than half of the human body consists of water, which also form a large part of the food we eat, especially vegetables and fruits. Man can live for ninety days or a little more without food, but he cannot live long without water.
Water exists as a substance in three states: ice, which melts at 00 Centigrade; liquid water and steam, the latter is formed when water boils at 100 degrees Centigrade.
Water differs from other liquids in that
1)it expands when cooled from 00 C,
2)contracts when heated from 00 to 40 C and
3)reaches its maximum density at 40 C. No other liquid possesses this property.
Pure water is rarely found in nature. This is because water is able to dissolve many substances from the air, the soil and the rocks. The saltiness of sea water is caused by the mineral substances which are dissolved from the Earth’s surface by rivers and carried down to the sea. The Sun’s heat causes the surface sea water to evaporate or to change into vapour, leaving behind the salt and other minerals. That is why the seas are so much more salty than rivers flowing into them.
Fresh water which is accumulated on the earth’s surface is known as surface water. Lakes, rivers, reservoirs, streams, swamps and any other natural storage basin contain surface water. Not all surface water areas are natural as there are many man-made lakes and reservoirs. On the other hand, fresh water (from rain, melting snow or ice) which soaks into the soil is known as ground water.
It was long known that there is no life without water. Man can live without
clothes, without shelter and for some time without food. But he soon perishes without water. All his food contains water, from
about 60% in lean meat to 95% in watery
fruit. His body is about 70% of water. The air
surrounding him contains enormous
quantities of water in the form of vapour. The surface of the earth is 70% water to an average depth of over 4 kilometers. And yet man often does not have enough
First of all water is needed by the industry. It is necessary 100 litres of water to produce one kilogram of paper; 600 litres to produce one kilogram of woolen cloth; 3 500 litres for producing one ton of dry cements and 20 000 litres in order to produce one ton of steel. It was established that the needs in water are greatest in India, Indonesia, Nigeria, Brazil, Pakistan, Korea, China and Philadelphia. The total amount of water in existence is about 326 million cubic miles. Every man gets along with less than one per cent of the world’s water. But the total population of the world is growing at a rate of 1.7 % annually. So man began treating raw water, filtrating and chlorinating it. He has devised modern methods of collecting, pumping, storing and distributing water. There are the grand enterprises of taming the rivers, of harnessing their strength to produce power for man’s use, preventing floods and using the water for increasing the harvest of the land and providing food for the growing family of man. Perhaps a practical way will be found of making the rain fall where it is most needed. And yet the human suffering and economic loss resulting from inadequate water supplies are so great that bold measures are required. Many diseases are associated with lack of clean water and contaminated water and unsafe water supplies. World water supply is the major concern now.
EXERCISES AND ASSIGNMENTS
Exercise 1. Прочитайте текст. Выберите из каждого абзаца предложения, которые передают его основное содержание.
Exercise 2. Озаглавьте абзацы текста.
Exercise 3. Составьте план текста и перескажите его по-русски и по- английски.
Exercise 4. Скажите, какие новые сведения вы узнали, прочитав тексты из урока 4.
Exercise 5. Выскажите свое мнение относительно следующих утверждений:
Pure water is rare found in nature.
There is no life without water.
World water supply is the major concern now.
TEXT C. CHEMISTRY
Chemistry is a science which deals with substances, their composition and structure, their properties and mutual conversation. Man began to use chemical processes in ancient times
for glass making, dyeing, preparation of pigments, poisons and drugs. But theory lagged behind and was neither connected with practice, nor supported by experiment.
The first theoretical chemistry was the chemistry of Greek chemists Aristotle, Hippocrates, Democritus, Plato and others.
Modern chemistry began with the work of Robert Boyle. He studied the relationship
between the volume of a gas and the pressure. In 1748 M. Lomonosov discovered the law of conservation of substance. In 1777 Lavoisier formulated the basis of the process of combustion. He introduced the concept of the chemical elements.
At the beginning of the 19th century John Dalton carried out his work on the atomic theory. A. Avogadro stated that equal volumes of gases under the same temperature and pressure contain the same number of molecules. F. Kekule and A. Butlerov introduced the structural theory of organic chemistry. In 1869 D.I. Mendeleyev discovered regularities in the properties of the elements. The Periodic System of D.I. Mendeleyev was the greatest and the most important achievement of the 19th century.
Many great scientists devoted their life to the development of chemistry. N. Bohr developed the theory of the hydrogen atom, the Curies prepared artficially radio-active elements, Marie Curie discovered radium and polonium, N. Semenov discovered chain reactions, N. Zelinsky made a basis for synthesizing many new compounds and so on.
The future of chemistry is practically unlimited. Rapid development of chemistry will help to create many new goods, machines, plastics, polymers, drugs, fertilizers, etc.
Modern chemistry is divided into several important branches:
1)inorganic chemistry which studies the properties of chemical elements and their mixtures;
2)organic chemistry which deals with the compounds of carbon;
3)physical chemistry which uses physics in studying chemical processes;
4)analytical chemistry which defines the qualitative and quantitative chemical composition of substances;
5) colloidal chemistry which deals with special properties of substances in a finely dispersed condition;
6)electrochemistry which studies the relation between electrical energy and chemical change;
7)nuclear chemistry which studies the transformation of atomic nuclei and reaction between them;
8)biochemistry which studies the process in living organisms.
EXERCISES AND ASSIGNMENTS
Exercise 1. Прочитайте текст и проверьте свое понимание текста по вопросам:
1.What does chemistry deal with?
2.For what purpose did man use chemical processes in ancient times?
3.What Greek chemists are known to you?
4.What discoveries were made by the chemists of the 18th century?
5.What great scientists devoted their lives to the development of chemistry?
6.What branches of chemistry will you study at the University?
Exercise 2. Закончите следующие предложения:
1.Inorganic chemistry studies …
2.Organic chemistry deals with …
3.Analytical chemistry defines …
4.Physical chemistry uses …
5.Electrochemistry studies …
Exercise 3. Расскажите о вкладе отечественных и зарубежных ученых в развитие химии. Пользуйтесь моделью в страдательном залоге:
The first theoretical chemistry was founded by Greek scientists.
1.Modern chemistry (to begin) by Robert Boyle.
2.The law of conversion of substance (to discover) by M. Lomonosov in 1748.
3.The basis of the process of combustion (to formulate) by Lavoisier in … .
4.The research on atomic theory (to carry out) by J. Dalton.
5.The structural chemistry of organic chemistry (to introduce) by … and …
6.Regularities in the properties of the elements (to discover) by … in 1869.
7.The theory of the hydrogen atom (to develop) by … .
8.Radium and polonium (to discover) by the … .
Exercise 1. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на способы выражения сказуемого.
1.Such question can not be answered at once.
2.The rate of the reaction is to be influenced by gas temperature.
3.Einstein’s theory of relativity has to be referred to by many researchers.
4.All the instruments should be looked at with great interest for they are widely used in the lab.
5.The liquid was to be allowed to evaporate.
6.This insoluble compound should not be affected by acids.
7.It must be noted that this huge automatic unit is operated by only a few men.
8.It is to be remembered that concentrated acids are very dangerous.
9.All the devices and glassware are to be kept in good order in the laboratory.
10.Nitric acid may be obtained by the reaction of concentrated sulfuric acid with sodium nitrate.
Exercise 2. Вставьте модальные глаголы или их заменители, подходящие по смыслу.
1.… I take this test-tube?
2.A first-year student … … carry out many experiments in the laboratory of inorganic chemistry.
3.You … use this glassware for your experiments.
4.In this experiment we … … find out all the properties of this substance.
5.Hot water … … to poured in a flask.
6.You … carry out this experiment again for getting better results.
7.His experiment … help our researchers to finish their work.
8.He knows very much and … make various experiments very well.
9.The gas … … be passed through a glass tube at a low temperature.
10.A good order … be kept at the laboratory.
11.… you measure pressure?
12.Nitric acid … be prepared by the reaction of concentrated sulfuric acid with sodium nitrite.
Exercise 3. Прочитайте и проанализируйте текст. Найдите предложения со сказуемым в страдательном залоге и с модальными глаго- лами. Переведите эти предложения. Составьте вопросы по содержанию текста.
Industrial Uses of Gold
Gold (Au) is a metallic chemical element. Atomic number 79. Atomic weight 197.2. Gold has a number of industrial uses. About 10% of the annual
production is used for industrial processes.
Gold is measured in troy ounces (31.1
grams). One ounce can be drawn into 80
kilometres of wire. Between 20 and 30 ounces
are needed for every jet engine. Gold coatings, 0.000024 mm thick, are used to reflect heat from jet engine exhausts. The windscreens of
Concorde, other high speed aircraft, and some express trains have a gold electric heating element, 0.000005 mm thick, which is used to prevent icing. Spacecraft are
protected against radiation by a thin layer of the metal.
As it conducts electricity well and does not tarnish, gold is used extensively in computers and electric consumer goods. For many years it has been blended with oils and applied as decoration to china and glass. Because it is so reflective, it is employed in the manufacture of some roof tiles and glass.
Exercise 4. Составьте предложения и переведите их.
to produce an ounce of
has been used
in ancient times
Three tons of rock
can be used
in industrial processes
may be seen
have to be mined
for 6000 years
are being found
for many purposes
ТЕКСТЫ ДЛЯ КОНТРОЛЯ НАВЫКОВ ЧТЕНИЯ, АУДИРОВАНИЯ
I.DECOMPOSITION REACTIONS OF WATER
Many elements decompose water at a suitable temperature. The alkaliearth metals and alkali metals attack water at the ordinary temperature. Magnesium is only slightly affected by cold water, but it reacts readily with hot water. Magnesium, zink, iron react with steam. Aluminium doesn’t react with water since it is protected by surface oxide film. But if this film is removed, aluminium will decompose water in the cold. Carbon, silicon, fluorine and chlorine combine with water. Carbon can be dissolved when passed into water, forming a green solution. On standing it combines with water, giving hydrochloric acid. Fluorine acts in a similar way, forming hydrofluoric acid.
II. PROPERTIES OF HYDROGEN PEROXIDE
Pure hydrogen peroxide is a viscid liquid. It is colourless when viewed in thick layers. The liquid is odourless. Dilute aqueous solution has a bitter metallic taste. The liquid decomposes rapidly when heated at ordinary atmospheric pressure. It boils at 68-690 C under about 28 mm pressure. The liquid is soluble in water in all proportions. Pure hydrogen peroxide is stable. Dilute aqueous solutions may be kept for a year with no appreciable change. Alkaline solutions are not kept very well. Pure h3O2 is decomposed rapidly if any dust is present. Hydrogen peroxide possesses strong oxidizing properties It liberates iodine from solutions of potassium iodide. It converts lead sulfite into lead sulfate.
III. NITRIC ACID
Nitric acid is a colourless liquid, which fumes strongly in air. The pure acid rapidly absorbs moisture from the air. It mixes in proportions with water. It boils at 860 C and freezes to a white solid melting at –420 C. An aqueous solution containing 68% of nitric acid boils at 120,50 C. The concentrated solutions and the more dilute solutions, the lower their boiling points. Nitric acid is readily decomposed by heat. The main chemical properties can be classified as follows: it acts as an acid and as oxidizing and nitrating agent. It reacts with basic oxides, hydroxides and carbonates forming the corresponding salts. It is a powerful oxidizing agent. By means of nitric acid sulfur is oxidized to sulfuric acid and phosphorus to phosphoric acid. Many metallic sulfides are oxidized to sulfates. Nitric acid is used for the preparation of
Text b. The telegraph
Benjamin Franklin, an American who is famous for his interesting and useful inventions, published his ideas about electricity in 1752. Scientists in many countries became interested in this wonderful form of energy. They wanted to find the answer to a very important question: Could electricity be used to develop a fast, efficient system of long-distance communication ?
Experiments proved that electricity could travel instantly over a very long piece of wire. But a note that was written on a piece of paper couldn’t be put into a wire! How could electricity be used to send a message?
A Danish scientist discovered that electricity could move a needle from left to right, and that the needle could be pointed at letters on a piece of paper. Then a German government worker made up a code system that could be used with an electric needle. In 1837, two English scientists sent a message by electric telegraph from Camden Town to Euston, a distance of more than 1.6 kilometres.
In the United States, Samuel Morse, a portrait painter, was experimenting with an electric telegraph, too. At first, he connected a pencil to an electric wire. When the electricity came through the wire, the pencil made wavy lines. Then Morse invented a code that used dots and dashes for the letters of the alphabet. The pencil wrote the dots and dashes on a narrow piece of paper. Finally, he discovered that telegraph messages did not have to be written; they could be sent in sound.
At one end of the telegraph wire, the sender pressed a key. At the other end of the wire, another key went down and made a clicking sound. The telegraph operator used a short touch for a dot and a longer one for a dash. When the receiver heard the clicking sounds, he could figure out the message.
On May 24, 1844, the first long-distance message was sent by telegraph — from Washington, D.C., to Baltimore, Maryland — 64 kilometres!
Telegraph companies were formed in many cities. By 1861, telegraph wires stretched across the United States from the Atlantic to the Pacific. In Europe, too, Samuel Morse’s system became popular.
But telegraph wires couldn’t be hung over an ocean. Messages to and from Europe had to be sent by ship — a journey of two or three weeks. A new method was needed.
The Atlantic Telegraph Company, which was organised in 1856 by Cyrus Field and other businessmen, wanted to try to lay a cable on the floor of the Atlantic Ocean. England and the United States contributed money for this experiment.
Many attempts were made by ships from both countries. The 4000-kilometer cable broke three times. Each time, more money had to be raised, and a new cable had to be made. Finally, on July 27, 1866, the first transatlantic message was sent from Newfoundland to Ireland.
Later, cables were laid to Central and South America. After 1900, transpacific cables were laid to Asia and Australia. At last, news and business information could be sent instantly to almost every country in the world.
From «English for a Changing World»
1. Guess the meaning of the words given below: distance, electricity, communication, telegraph, line, code, operator, experiment, press, popular, idea, form, energy, system, alphabet, company, ocean, method, organize, businessman, cable.
2. Translate the nouns with the suffix –er (-or) derived from the following verbs: invent – изобретать inventor — … use – использовать user — …send – посылать sender — … write – писать writer — … receive – получать receiver — … develop – разрабатывать developer — … operate – работать operator — … work – работать worker — … paint – рисовать painter — … report – сообщать reporter — …
3. Group the pairs of the words with the opposite meaning:
fast, useful, long, left, narrow, short, right, popular, slow, wavy, unknown, wide, straight, useless;
to find, to send, to go down, to rise, to receive, to lose.
4. Learn the following terms: wire – провод, проводник message – сообщение needle – стрелка, игла dot – точка dash – тире sound – звук key – ключ, клавиша cable – кабель
5. Read the text ‘The Telegraph’. Find in the text the English equivalents for the following Russian phrases:очень важный вопрос; эффективная система связи на дальние расстояния; электрический проводник; узкая полоска бумаги; код, в котором применялись точки и тире; нажать ключ; записать сообщение; телеграфные провода протянулись от Атлантики до Тихого океана; проложить кабель по дну Атлантического океана; вкладывать деньги.
6. Find in the text ‘The Telegraph’ sentences with the predicate in the Passive Voice. Translate them.
7. Translate the text ‘The Telegraph’. Pay attention to the sentences in the Passive Voice.
8. Put ten questions on the text ‘The Telegraph’.
9. Describe the principle of action of the telegraph made by S. Morse.